| Structure|| Examples|| We use the Present Perfect Tense:
| To form the Present Perfect Tense we use has or have with the past participle form of the verb. Most past participles end in -ed (worked, studied, etc.). Irregular verbs have special past participles that must be memorized. (went, spoken, seen, etc.)
you have worked
he/she/it has worked /-s/
watch - watched /-ed/
play - played /-ed/
study - studied /-ed/
to be - been
to do - did
to have - had
you HAVE NOT /haven't/
he/she/it HAS NOT
/hasn't / WORKED
1. They haven't been to New York yet.
2. She hasn't seen him so far.
HAVE you WORKED?
HAS he/she/it WORKED?
1. Have you ever worked from home?
2. Has he ever been to Italy?
|1. My sister-in-law has been a teacher since 2000.|
2. David has worked in Spain since 1996.
3. He hasn't smoked for three years.
4. We have lived here for fifteen years.
| to express an action that began in the past and continues in the present (often with since and for).
|1. They have never been abroad.
2. Jane has already recieved her birthday presents.
3. The child has never asked me such questions before.
4. She has never expected such a change for the worse.
5. My coleague has been very busy recently.
| with adverbs such as ever, already, never, recently, lately, yet, always, etc.
|1. They have watched this film.
2. She has lost her keys.
3. The children have washed the dishes.
4. I have read this book.
5. We have moved into a new house.
6. Diana has changed her job.
| to express an action that happened at an indefinite time in the past (the exact time when it happened is not important)
| 1. I have written many letters since I moved to Canada.
2. We have had five tests so far this semester.
3. He has been in New York many times.
4. I have played tennis every sunday morning for the last two years.
| to talk about a repeated action in the past with unspecified time of completion (with so far, many times, since, for the last year, for hours, for a week, several times, etc.)
|1. Emma has just washed her hair.
2. We have just finished our lunch.
| to talk about a very recently completed action
|1. This is one of the most beautiful country she has ever visited.
2. This is the most delicious food I have ever eaten.
| we often use Present Perfect after a superlatives
|1. This is the first time I've ever visited your website and I think it is awesome.
2. It's the first time I've ever eaten Chinese food.
| we also use Present Perfect with the expressions "This is the first time...", "It's the first time...", etc.
|1. You can go out as soon as you have finished your homework.
2. I will go to bed after I have written my report.
| sometimes Present Perfect is used to emphasise on the completion of the act in the time clause (with time words such as when, until, after, before, as soon as)