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Grammar >>> Future Simple Tense

English does not have a verb form specifically used to express future tense. We have to choose from a variety of forms (using 'will'/'shall', 'going to', the present continuous, the present simple, etc.) to talk about future events. The future expressed with the modal auxiliaries will and shall + the base form of the verb is known as the future simple tense or 'will' future. Keep in mind, however, that 'will' doesn't always serve to indicate the future. We can use 'will' to talk about events happening at the present. (For example: This car won't start.)

 Structure Examples We use the Future Simple Tense:
 The future simple tense is composed of two parts: will/shall + base verb. Will and shall are often contracted to 'll.

 Affirmative form

I          +   shall / will  +  work

he/she/it       +  will  +  work

1. I shall/will write her tomorrow.
2. We shall/will go shopping together during the holidays.

 Note: 'Will' is used with all persons. 'Shall' can be used instead of 'will' with I/we. In modern English, particularly in American English, 'shall' with a future reference is rarely used.

 Negative form

I             SHALL + NOT
we              /SHAN'T/ +                     WORK

you              WILL + NOT
he/she/it           /WON'T/
we                  + WORK

I won't answer that question.
They won't accept this offer.

 Interrogative form

To form interrogative sentences we use will with all persons:

WILL        I       WORK?

WILL    he/she/it    WORK?

Will you open the window, please?
Will you do it for me?

 Note: We use shall to make offers, ask for advices or suggestions, etc. (mainly in British English)

1. Shall I close the door?
2. Shall we go to picnic tomorrow?
3. Shall I study English?

 'Shall' is also used as an imperative in formal or legal written statements:

1. The Chairman shall be present at the Company's general meetings.
2. The accused shall be present during the trial.

1. I will finish my report later today.
2. The sun will rise at 6:03 am.
3. I'll go to the market tomorrow.
4. There will be another conference next month.
5. I'll come to see you on Sunday.
6. We'll be back on Friday afternoon.
7. Tom will visit his parents next week.
8. They will paint the fence blue.
9. I will return in two hours.
10. He will finish his homework in twenty minutes.
11. Jane will turn 18 this year.
12. The wedding will take place on May 8th. The ceremony will begin at 4pm, followed by a meal and a big party.

 Note: In certain situations we use 'will' to emphasize:

13. You will drink your milk!
14. I will find a job.
 to say that something will happen in the future. Adverbs of time that will indicate such tense may include, tomorrow, today, later today, in five minutes, in two hours, on Monday, on Saturday afternoon, next week/month, this year, etc.

! Note that when we talk about prior plans, strong intentions or fixed arrangements we do not normally use 'will':

I am going to meet him this afternoon. ('to be' + 'going to' + main form of the verb)
I'm going to buy a new car this year. ('to be' + 'going to' + main form of the verb)
I am going to a party tommorrow night. (the present continuous)
Tina is getting married next month. (the present continuous)

! Note: 'Will' is used instead of 'going to' when a formal style is required, particularly in the written language (See 12)
1. I'll close the window.
2. I'll have a cup of tea, please.
3. - The phone is ringing.
    - I'll answer it.
4. - Oops, I dropped my pencil.
    - I'll pick it up.
 to express spontaneous decision /
to volunteer to do something (the action is decided at the moment of speaking)
1. I think it will rain.
2. The weather tomorrow will be sunny and warm.
3. I think David Brown will be the next mayor of our city.
4. Everything will be fine.
5. You are going to be a famous artist some day.
6. I think you are going to marry a wrong person.
 to predict future events (for example, to say what we think or believe will happen), we use both 'will' and 'going to'

! But note that we use 'going to' (not 'will') to make predictions about events when there is a concrete evidence:

Look at those dark clouds in the sky. It is going to rain soon.
1. I'll be there at 7 p.m., I promise.
2. I'll tell your parents what you did.
 to make promises or threats
1. Will you please help me to do my homework?
2. That suitcase is too heavy. Iíll help you.
 to request help or to offer help
1. I'll probably get there by my car.
2. You must read this book. I'm sure you'll like it.
3. I expect Tom will pass his exam.
 with words and expressions such as: probably, possibly, perhaps, (I'm) sure, (I) expect
1. If it begins to rain, I'll certainly nead an umbrella.
2. She will tell him when he calls.
 to talk about consequences (with if, when, provided, unless, as, as soon as, as long as, etc.)
1. I'll be in Athens tomorrow.
2. I'll be at a conference next week.
 when the main verb is be even if we talk about planned events
 More examples:

1. Will you go shopping?
2. I will not permit that kind of behaviour.
3. Will our theacher come with us?
    Yes, he will.      No, he won't.
4. Our teacher won't come with us.

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