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  Present Participle

Grammar  >>>  Present Participle

  1. Participles are formed from verbs. English has three types participles: the Present Participle, the Past Participle and the Perfect Participle. The Present Participle of the verb is formed by adding the suffix '-ing' to the base form of the verb: base form + '-ing'. We use the Present Participle along with a form of the verb 'to be' to create continuous (progressive) tenses.

  2. Spelling rules for the formation of the Present Participle.

 The general rule is: base form of the verb + '-ing':
work - working                  read - reading
go - going                          listen - listening
meet - meeting                   sleep - sleeping
enjoy - enjoying                 ski - skiing
grow - growing                  fix - fixing

  If a one syllable verb ends in consonant + vowel + consonant double the final consonant and add '-ing':
run - running                       beg - begging
sit - sitting                           jog - jogging

  If a verb has more than one syllable and ends in consonant + vowel + consonant, we double the final consonant only if the final syllable is stressed and add '-ing':
occur - occurring                begin - beginning
admit - admitting                 refer - referring

 When a verb ends in '-ic' we add '-k' and then '-ing':
picnic - picnicking               panic - panicking

 When a verb ends in '-l' the '-l' is doubled and '-ing' is added (in British English):
travel - travelling                cancel - cancelling

 When a verb ends in silent '-e', the silent '-e' is dropped and '-ing' is added:
close - closing                     move - moving
live - living                           have - having

  When a verb ends in an '-e' which is not silent, the final '-e' is not dropped before the ending '-ing' is added:
be - being                             see - seeing

  When a verb ends in '-ie', the '-ie' is changed to '-y' before the ending '-ing' is added:
die - dying                            lie - lying

 3. The Present Participal can be also used as an ajective in front of a noun: a running boy, a crying baby, a dancing lady, etc.

 The Past Participle

 List of Irregular Verbs

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