Conditionals. Zero, First, and Second Conditionals
Grammar >>> Conditionals. Zero, First, and Second Conditionals
1. Conditionals are clauses introduced with "if". They consist of two parts: the if-clauses (hypothesis) and the main clause (result). The if-clause can comes before the main clause or after the main clause. When it comes before the main clause, the two clauses are separated with comma.
The main types of conditionals are: Zero conditional, First conditional, Second conditional, Third conditional and Mixed conditional.
if-clause main clause
if + present simple present simple
1. If/When you mix red and blue, you get purple.
2. If people eat too much, they get fat.
3. If you heat water to 100°C (212°F), it boils.
if + present simple (present cont., present perfect) future simple (and also can/may/might/must) + bare infinitive (infinitive without to)
1. If we leave early, we'll catch the 9 o'clock.
2. If I have some time, I will probably have lunch at a restaurant.
3. If it's very cold tonight, our car won't start in the morning.
4. If they are studying, I won't make any noise.
5. If I finish the project on time, I may take a few days off.
6. If you skip English class today, you might miss something important.
7. If the fire alarm goes off, you must evacuate the building immadiately.
8. If she hasn't cooked dinner, we will order a pizza.
Remember: We can use "when" instead of "if" in First conditional. "If" means that something may happen. "When" means that something will definitely happen:
Note: We can use unless instead of if ... not in the if-clause of First conditional the verb is always in the affirmative after unless:
First conditional in popular superstitions
1. If you find a four-leaf clover, >>>
2. If you find a horseshoe, >>> you'll have good luck.
3. If you give a new pair shoes to a poor person >>>
4. If a black cat walks in front of you, >>>
5. If you walk under the ladder, >>> you'll have bad luck.
6. If you open un umbrella in your house >>>
7. If you break a mirror, you'll have bad luck seven years.
8. If you spill salt, you should throw a little salt over your left shoulder. If you don't, you'll have bad luck.
If-clause Main clause
if + past simple (past cont.) would/could/might + bare infinitive
1. If he exercised more, he would be in good phisical condition.
2. If you slept more, you would feel more energetic.
3. If I won the lottary, I would travel the world.
4. If I had enough money, I would buy a big house and a luxury car.
5. If she knew Spanish, she would read this Spanish book.
6. If Barbara didn't like children, she wouldn't want to be a teacher.
7. If he didn't have to take care of his little sister, he wouldn't have be home tonight.
8. If you weren't allergic to my perfume you wouldn't sneez so much.
9. If we were earning more money, we could buy a house by the sea.
10. If the TV weren't fixed, I could talk to the children. (I would be able to talk)
11. If Susan were younger, she could work for us. (she would be able to work)
12. They might be angry if I didn't visit them. (perhaps they would be)
We can also use the structure "if I were you" to give hypothetical advice:
1. If I were you, I would attend a design and painting course.
2. If I were you, I would talk to my parents.
3. I wouldn't go home early if I were you.
4. I wouldn't buy a used car if I were you.
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